Here is a brief overview of why saturable reactors are occasionally referred to as magnetic amplifiers. It is also an object of this invention to provide a novel core construction for a saturable reactor. The theory of magnetic amplifiers is dated, but its simplistic design has benefits for modern applications. The application for such dry type iron cored reactors may range from smoothing reactors, shunt reactors, energy storage reactors, to name just a few. Home engineer reference and training manuals saturable core reactor.
Then, appropriate saturable reactor structure is determined by simulating calculation. Saturable reactor how is saturable reactor abbreviated. Design, test and demonstration of saturable core reactor hts fault current limiter 1. At first zero crossing after the breaker opening order, the current is interrupted, and a flux of 0.
Saturable core manufacturers, service companies and distributors are listed in this trusted and comprehensive vertical portal. The active control circuitry connected to it was even more baffling to me so i had to figure out what was going on in the circuit. Beginning in 2007, first as sc power systems and from 2008 as zenergy power, inc. By varying this magnetization current and hence the magnetic parameters of the core, the inductance l is possible to be adjusted to a desired value. Zp ultimately perfected the design of the saturated. Saturable reactor definition of saturable reactor by. Saturable reactors are used in systems when a drop in full line voltage with complete linearity, a need to limit voltage. Resonant power conversion through a saturable reactor core. C winding as shown in figure a this type of reactor is used since the alternating current in the upper winding producing an a. The ac reactor features a magnetic core that can be deliberately saturated by means of a direct electric current in a control winding. A magnetic core for use in a saturable reactor made of an febased softmagnetic alloy comprising as essential alloying elements fe, cu and m, wherein m is at least one element selected from the group consisting of nb, w, ta, zr, hf, ti and mo, and having an alloy structure at least 50% in area ratio of which being fine crystalline. Magneticamplifier analysis using a generalized model for the saturable reactor core by herbert horace woodson s. Saturable reactors are considered magnetic amplifiers because they can use a relatively small amount of dc voltamps to control the transfer of a significant amount of ac. Singlecore saturable reactor with premagnetization.
The transformer has an oilfilled tank housing the scrs. The center leg normally is approximately twice as wide as the outer legs. Site replacement of internal saturable reactors of a. The permeability of the core is changed by varying a unidirectional flux flux in one direction through the core. Saturable reactors that are used for controlling variable outputs are provided, in their simplest form, with a dc winding that furnishes the premagnetization and with an ac winding between an ac source and a load to which the current is controlled by varying the amount of premagnetization. Desperately needing a random electronic release this weekend, i wound a quick saturable reactor. Calculate the reactor inductance for a set of operating currents. Explain why a magnetic frequency multiplier operating on the principles discussed in section 71 requires an odd number rather than an even number of saturable reactors. Saturable reactor article about saturable reactor by the. The double bar between the inductors stands for an iron core, and the symbol that cuts across the two windings is a. Weve prepared the illustrations below to share six established saturable reactor element core and coil configurations.
Self isolating high frequency saturable reactor sematech, inc. Mag amps regulate the output voltage with a saturable core reactor that exhibits a square bh loop. Although commonly used in electronic circuit applications, scr has seldom been used in power system applications. As figures 2a and 2b show, a saturable reactor limits peak currents. This decreases inductive reactance and allows increased flow of the alternating current ac. Design, test and demonstration of saturable core reactor. Details on a saturable reactor that can be quickly assembled using two standard power transformers. Special transformers and applications transformers. Electric vehicle battery charger controlled by magnetic core. The study of the saturablecore reactor scr can be traced back to 1900s. A saturable reactor in electrical engineering is a special form of inductor where the magnetic core can be deliberately saturated by a direct. L1 is the schematic symbol for a saturable core reactor. If a dc voltage is applied to the control winding of a saturablecore reactor and an ac voltage is applied to the load windings, the ac flux will aid the dc flux on one half cycle and oppose the dc flux on the other half cycle see figure 732. Resonant power conversion through a saturable reactor.
As the first stage of the development plan, the appropriate saturable reactor structure should be presented and verified by experiment. Saturable reactor definition is an ac reactor coil of variable but limited impedance because of magnetic core saturation by means of an auxiliary dc excitation coil abbreviation sr. It says the saturable core is equivalent to a dam with gates, and that by controlling the primary you are controlling the saturation of the core. A saturable reactor in electrical engineering is a special form of inductor where the magnetic core can be deliberately saturated by a direct electric current in a control winding. Request pdf applications of saturablecore reactors scr in power systems the study of the saturablecore reactor scr can be traced. A saturable reactor capitalizes on this effect by forcing the core into a state of saturation with a strong magnetic field generated by current through another winding. Magnetic amplifiers for voltage regulation applications. Design, test and demonstration of saturable reactor high. Its rdson will be in the ten m, impedance of the reactor. The saturable core model is capable of simulating nonlinear transformer behavior including saturation, hysteresis, and. A current sensor provides a control signal representative of the alternating or direct current passing between the. The reactors power winding is the one carrying the ac load current, and the control winding is one.
The cores are high permeability, so they saturate pretty easily. Magnetic amplifier analysis using a generalized model for the saturable reactor core. It does note that one disadvantage of this type of rectifier is that it must have a load on it or the voltage will go to maximum despite the control settings, but that this can be dealt with by a. This operation is similar to the principle of the long ago well known magnetic amplifier or the saturable core reactor as it is often called. The operating principles of saturable reactors have been known for quite a long time, but it is only within the.
Saturable reactors have a nonlinear voltagecurrent characteristic so that when the voltage across the reactor rises above a certain threshold, the reactor current increases disproportionately due to core saturation. Saturable reactor for power flow control in electric transmission. Therefore, a saturable core macro model, utilizing the isspice subcircuit feature, must be created. Osborne has been involved in a wide variety of saturable reactor design projects over the years. In this paper, different ferromagnetic materials, core structures and winding arrangements of saturable reactors are analyzed. The saturable transformer block model shown consists of three coupled windings wound on the same core. Trench offers special reactors incorporating dry type iron cored reactors with air natural, air forced or water cooling. The saturable core reactor has a control winding 14 which receives a direct current voltage from the output terminals 15 and 16 of a fullwave rectifier 17. The magnetic amplifier acts as a variable impedance switch where a small amount of. Albert nelson, franco moriconi, robert lombaerde 2. It looks like a regular transformer power supply except that theres an extra inductive element called a saturable reactor drawn in one of the power connections. Zenergy power has successfully designed, built, tested, and installed in the us electrical grid a saturable reactor fault current limiter. A saturable reactor for power flow control srpfc is a novel application of a concept well known to electronics and power electronics engineers that provides continuous modulation of line reactance by controlling the magnetization in a ferromagnetic core. Saturable reactors are magnetic amplifiers saturable reactors are not common electromagnetic components.
Saturable core reactor how is saturable core reactor. As a result, its effective impedance reduces below that without saturation. The schematic diagram of this circuit is shown in figure 333. Saturablecore reactor a saturablecore reactor is a magneticcore reactor coil whose reactance is controlled by changing the permeability of the core. Saturated core reactor winding, waveform, block diagram. In one form, the required magnetomotive force mmf bias for the saturable reactor is provided by a controllable flux bias element in order to minimize the required bias power. An ironcore reactor having an additional control winding that carries direct current whose value is adjusted to change the degree of saturation of the core, thereby changing the reactance that the alternatingcurrent winding offers to the flow of alternating current. Saturable core reactors an overview sciencedirect topics. A simulation model for the saturable reactor, an electromagnetic devices widely used as a protective element for the thyristor circuit, is presented. The model has been simulated using an improved version of spice, which also contains the model of.
Figure 332 shows a saturablecore reactor that is used to control the. A 120v, 60cycle, singlecore saturable reactor has a dc control winding of 900 turns and an ac output winding of 225 turns. Us 4152637 a saturable reactor limiter for current the. Collaudo del reattore saturabile installato definitivamente nel quadro comandi, munito di strumenti per monitorare tensione e corrente sugli avvolgimenti di. Saturable reactors, in their simpler forms, have been used in. Power magnetics supplies the most reliable saturable reactors available, using our design and manufacturing expertise to meet the demands of industry. Applications of saturablecore reactors scr in power. Saturable reactor hysteresis model based on jilesatherton. Saturable reactor works on the principle by varying the saturation of the core the current flow through a coil wound on a magnetic core can be varied. The basic principle underlying a saturable reactor is the change in inductance that corresponds to a saturated or unsaturated iron core. L1 is the schematic symbol for a saturablecore reactor. Saturable reactor for power flow control in electric. Encyclopedia article about saturablecore reactor by the free dictionary.
The saturable reactor cannot be modeled using a single spice primitive element. The comprehensive directory provides access to full contact and ability information for sourcing professionals, engineers and researchers wishing to get information on reactors. Main applications sample problems saturable reactor. The present invention discloses a saturable reactor and a method for decoupling the. Magnetic amplifier mag amp saturable reactor wireless power transfer. A saturable reactor device for limiting alternating and direct current in an external electric circuit. Magnetic amplifier technology involves unique techniques that can be tailored to match the fit, form, and function of your application. Once saturated, the inductance of the saturable reactor drops dramatically. The breaker is reclosed at t 9 cycles, at a zero crossing of source voltage, producing an additional flux offset of approximately 1 pu. Magnetization and permeability curves with operating point.
The model takes into account the winding resistances r1 r2 r3 and the leakage inductances l1 l2 l3 as well as the magnetizing characteristics of the core, which is modeled by a resistance rm simulating the core active losses and a. A method replaces a saturable core reactor scrs in a rectifier power transformer disposed in a transformer vault at its field location. The control winding is shown with five loops, and the load winding is shown with three loops. Saturable core reactors current controlling device water cooling allows for higher current density joint free toroid shaped cores offer an ideal magnetic path that keeps core losses to an absolute minimum. Pdf a simulation model for the saturable reactor researchgate. A saturated core reactor can have a single core and only one a. C winding that may be disturbed or damaged the dc control circuit. Saturable core reactor how is saturable core reactor abbreviated. Earlier in this article we studied that it is designed based on the design of the saturable reactor, which consists of major parts such as dc source, magnetic core with windings and ac source. Implement two or threewinding saturable transformer. Applications of saturablecore reactors scr in power systems.840 1431 1079 1422 976 1029 1053 703 734 1149 124 781 515 677 463 439 187 193 1515 365 623 627 218 1565 1373 1295 925 68 1073 1051 1166 741 385 1027